Multinational Companies in Low-Income Markets: An Analysis of Social Embeddedness in Southeast Asia

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Copy and paste this HTML code into your webpage to embed. Heimhelferinnen in Ausbildung laptops. He developed his ideas during his stay in Vienna as immigrant and his acquaintances with liberals and socialists of German-speaking countries. In this sense, he experienced the changing phase around liberalism of the time at some distance This paper will show how Polanyi, a self-acknowledged Marxist and humanist, comes to the acceptance of intervention and discuss possibly what it means in our contemporary context.

The proposed paper is analysing the emergence of market economy at the level of the individual citizen after the end of the Communist command economy. It is describing and explaining the structure and extent of societal support for the new macro-economic systems established after The paper will describe the emergence of the market economy and the structure and changes of individual economic values after the collapse of the Communist centrally planned economy. In the field of economic values, a variety of post-Communist societies will be differentiated between supporters of market values versus supporters of non-market and collective values and social groups with mixed groupings of economic values.

The cross-national survey data-base of the paper is on the one hand the New Democracies Barometer which is being directed by the author since and conducted in 16 post-Communist countries and on the other hand the World European Values Surveys. The paper is comparing the emergence of the market economy and the changes of economic values in a longitudinal perspective between and Author s : Daniel Maman. Different aspects of the relationship between state and economy have traditionally been examined, yet corporate governance and specifically corporate law have received less attention.

This paper focuses on the legislation of the new corporate law in Israel at the end of the s, which took place during regime transformation from an interventionist state to a regulatory state.


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The article makes specific reference to three disputes: the piercing of the corporate veil, the separation of the position of chairman of the board and chief executive officer, and the obligation of private firms to disclose financial reports. This case study facilitates the identification of two contradicting processes in the relationship between state and corporations, which are micro-economic institutions of capitalism. On the one hand, despite of the transformation of the regime, state actors are continuously involved both in the internal governance of corporations and the firm's relationship with the environment via corporate law.

Such involvement is to large extent bound to public corporations. The continual involvement of the state in corporate governance will illustrate by the ban on the chairman of the board of public firms from serving as the CEO at the same time. On the other hand, the new reform was inspired by the American neo-liberal model and was heavily based on the 'Law and Economics' perspective, which holds the view that essentially there is no place for state involvement in corporate governance, except for correcting particular market failures. A major result of the neo-liberal reform led to the creation of social domains that are not constrained or regulated by the state.

This is most typical in legislation relating to private corporations, and the outcome is that the corporate law enables corporations to constrain the state's power and its influence on property rights. The aim of this paper is to analyze the institutionalization of the travel market during the Edo-Period in Japan. The social construction of economic markets and their embeddedness in society has received considerable attention in recent research in economic sociology. The travel market in pre-modern Japan is of special interest in the context of this research program as a very early example of a mass consumer market in the service sector.

It enhances our theoretical understanding of the triangular relation between suppliers, consumers, and the political elite as a regulator in the social construction of markets. Oshi lower priests of Shintoistic shrines and Buddhist temples acted as entrepreneurs of the travel market and were the driving force behind its creation. Although they lacked the modern means of communication, they established trust relations with their costumers through vast social networks.

As the costs of a long distance travel were not bearable individually for the majority of the population, associations for collective financing of the travel activities of members spread in the country. Traveling became a central aspect of the popular culture of the common population and was embedded in everyday social practice. Although the local feudal lords did not welcome the travel activities of the population, their dependency on the Ise Shrine and its oshi for keeping good diplomatic relations with the Tokugawa Shogunate as the central political authority forced them to restrain on their countermeasures.

This paper shows some results from a research carried out to precisely determine value conflicts in the current Spanish culture. We will focus here on socio-economic ideologies. Based on data from a wide range of surveys, we will show, on the one hand, the socio-economic values nearly all Sapaniards agree with. On the other hand, we will show the socio-economic values half of the Sapaniards agree with and half do not.

The first ones signal great "consensus" or agreements in the Spanish culture, whereas the second ones signal great "disensus" or disagreements. Analysing the structure of agreements and disagreements conformed by these socio-economic values, we have been able to define the state of the cultural conflict in this area of values. Particularly, we have found out that there is an exact balance between the value position close to the neo-liberal ideology, on the one hand, and the value position close to the neo-state ideology, on the other.

This exact balance or equilibrium of values characterizes the postmodern culture, leaving an open-ended horizon to future social construction. Only taking into account this balance we will be able to figure out the socio-economic utopias of the next future. Author s : Egle Tamulyniene.

The paper is based on the definition that considers the civil society as action and institutions that occur without direct influence of political power. We put an emphasis on the action side of civil society and look at philanthropy as one of the specific aspects of the social action. There could be distinguished three types of agents in the philanthropic process: donors, intermediators and recipients. The quantitative research on the philanthropic action has been recently carried in Lithuania it was based on the interviews with the representatives of 3 agent groups.

In our interpretation of data we use a three-fold typology of philanthropic action: macro level value attitudes , mezzo level organized interests and micro level individual action. A challenging dichotomy emerges: the philanthropic action based on postmodern values prestige building, information society, individual expression promoting innovation and dynamism overwhelms the traditional philanthropic action based on Christian morality orienting itself towards the relief of social dysfunction provision of social care. The paradox lies in the fact, that the historical origin of philanthropic action is based namely on Christian morality.

However, in nowadays philanthropic action appears from the reversed side: it gives priority to individual expression, communal bonds building and prestige achievement, but not social care and assistance in case of deprivation. Our study dwells on interpretation how concrete manifestations of the above mentioned dichotomy in philanthropic action is shaped by the agent's biography, political and civic value attitudes, one's experience in philanthropic action.

In Turkey most people prefer to save foreign exchange rather than the domestic currency. Besides we do not have an accurate information how many people keep their savings at home. In this situation the social effects are very significant as well as the economic effects. The aim which underpins the paper is that what kind of factors affect people to save foreign exchange. Saving habits are not only shaped economic factors so we need to determine historical, cultural and social factors.

Author s : Francois Collet. This paper is a critical review of Mark Granovetter's theoretical view on the sociological analysis of economic life. Rather than a comprehensive record of the content and evolution of Granovetter's theoretical work, the main intent is to contribute to discussions on some issues of general interest in the epistemological debate on the sociological analysis of economic life. I examine the role of self-interest as a basic theoretical block and the influence of social networks as moderators.

I also look at the mediating role of social networks in the formation social norms I discuss the possibility of considering structural effects other than network effects without regressing to a substantialist analysis criticised rightly by Granovetter and other structural analysts such as Burt.

Background

I argue that the automatic inclusion by Granovetter of a calculative disposition to allocate scarce resources in the analysis of economic action is epistemologically unfounded and incompatible with his intent to address the limitations of economic models.

Whilst any model of action, whether designed by an economist or a sociologist, should aim at the highest possible level of generality, the critical examination of the conditions of validity of the assumptions is necessary for progress in the scientific understanding of economic activities I conclude that the inclusion of a self-interest factor should be the result of an analysis defining its social and historical conditions of validity rather than an unreflexive operation. The recent reforms in Russia oriented at the positive goals of forming market relationships not always achieve the expected results.

One of its alarming consequences is mass involvement of the population in the sphere of informal economy. In this condition the specific survival strategies are forming and different social practices of informal economy are used. The paper is based on the material of in-depth interviews with St.

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Petersburg families. The analysis allowed to find specific forms of this involvement and to interpret them as different forms of behavior in the process of adaptation to market relations. The framework of the interpretation of the notion of informal economy and activity allowed including in it both the traditional forms of informal relations and the new present-day ones. Informal economical activity is a consequence of intensive entering the market and as well of absence of elaborated effective legislate base. One of the main conclusions: the macro-economical movements may be counter-productive when they result in growth of most people's discontent with the existing conditions of life, in disrespectful attitude and distrust to the activity of the state authorities.

Even most progressive reforms can not be of creative character if they will not be understood and supported by most of the population. Loss of confidence "everybody in everybody", failures of the reforms resulted in reinforcement of the principle of permissiveness and disrespect for the law. The destructive tendencies in the transformation of the society become more and more obvious, and hamper any possibilities of taking constructive decisions.

Author s : Gertraude Mikl-Horke. Diffusion of management innovation studies are usually based on communication theory. The new economic sociological perspective offers a view more relevant to this particular item of diffusion. The dynamic potential of diffusion research can contribute in its turn to grasp the present change processes in our societies more adequately. The view presented includes institutional and power network approaches as well as a conception of a special market for the diffusion of management innovations.