Global Purchasing and Supply Management: Fulfill the Vision (Mathematics Education Library)
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Finland also provides three years of maternity leave, subsidized daycare and pre-school for 5 - 7 year olds where the emphasis is on playing and socializing.
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Canada: They focus on three main parts: literacy, math and high school graduation. With a clear vision, they have created a transparent system in collaboration with administrators, teachers and the union to create a curriculum and methodology that is successful. The system encourages teamwork, quality education, continued teacher training, transparent results and a culture of sharing best practices. The teacher morale is also high because their pay is acceptable, working conditions are favorable, facilities are good and there are all kinds of opportunities for teachers to improve their practice.
Most importantly, perhaps, there is discretion for teachers to make their own judgments. It shows the current status but its policy, ultimate resource teachers , openness and freedom must be aligned with the future needs  if they want to keep and improve their future competitiveness. The overall results of worldwide educating for the future index  has been listed for comparison.
High Education and training is one of the 12 pillars of Competitiveness. This pillar measures secondary and tertiary enrollment rates as well as the quality of education as evaluated by business leaders. However, the Happy Planet Index is the other way round with the exception of Finland. It seems that no homework and no standardized testing in primary school do enhance Happiness. Competiveness and happiness can co-exist if our Education system is properly designed. There is a consensus that no single skill set or area of expertise is able to sustain a long term career in the economics of the future.
Educational institutions need to provide both in-depth subject knowledge as well as inter-disciplinary connections. The Future core skills of the 21 st century are complex problem solving, critical thinking, creativity, collaboration, and digital literacy. Globalization with greater integration. Chart 1. Comparison of top universities, global competitiveness index, happy plant index and the worldwide educating for the future index.
They have to be equipped themselves new style of skill, namely Interdisciplinary skills, Creative and analytical skills, Entrepreneurial skills, Leadership skills, Digital and technical skills, and Global awareness and civic education . These skills are ideally developed in early stage and then refined at colleges and universities, and lifelong learning.
It is an integration of the principles explored by chaos, network, and complexity and self-organization theories Siemens, . The principles emphasize on connections with information sources, different fields, and ideas. This connection can be made through social networks which are built on the premise of collaboration and sharing. They are ideal for connectivity particularly in external learning situations that are not always available, or feasible, in face-to-face classrooms Mallon, .
This intangible asset produced by social relationships as a result of social networking is defined as social capital Coleman, . It has been indicated that frequent library users have a higher social capital than those who use the library less often Johnson and Griffis, . Modern libraries represent ideal environments for supporting connected learning. They are centers for knowledge creation and sharing, they support self-directed and interest-based learning, and they are inclusive public spaces that bring many different groups together.
Once primarily thought of as information providers or repository managers, libraries have undergone a transformation Braun et al. Connected learning emphasizes openly networked connections outside of traditional learning spaces. Public libraries may no longer be needed to provide formal community information, but they can engage as information shepherds with local community service agencies in informal community information provision Gorichanaz and Turner, . On the other hand, School libraries are centers of innovation while librarians are ambassadors of technology, makerspaces, STEM programming, and independent research.
They are connectors and collaborators, working extensively alongside teaching faculty and engaging with the outside community. The same concept has been extended to Campus. Technological advances have enhanced education to new heights, where some universities can afford to upgrade their facilities, including Smart libraries. However, education and student life goes beyond the library. Education is more than effective access to information. The connectivity of devices enabled by Internet of Things IoT can no doubt benefit the whole campus. Institutions that adopt digital infrastructure and provides services to its users can become a Smart Campus.
In this section, we outline how several initiatives in developing a Smart Campus strengthen learning capacity, happiness, and competitiveness for universities. An overview picture is shown in Figure 1. Figure 1. Smart campus. Learning in universities tends to occur in classrooms or lecture halls. Generally speaking, the professor would be in front of the lecture hall and present information in front of dozens, if not hundreds, of students.
The professor could use a whiteboard or PowerPoint for ease of presentation, or even use science experiments to illustrate a phenomenon. Even though professors in smaller classrooms can more easily interact with individual students or small groups of students, tools in these traditional learning spaces are limited. Relying on PowerPoint, books, iClickers, and the occasional hands-on could greatly benefit from additional technology Mayer et al.
Although this type of learning has worked in many fields that centers around texts and the exchange of ideas that can be adequately communicated via class discussions or essays e. English, philosophy, communication , many fields that involve micro or macro visualization e. STEM would need digitally augmented classrooms. Universities that adopt these technologies would be more competitive as students cannot learn the same way by themselves. Traditional lecture halls could be redesigned by arming them with SMARTboards, virtual reality headsets, or augmented reality Wu et al.
SMARTboards can replace overhead projectors and allow teachers to enhance their lessons by integrating computers, video cameras, microscopes, and online resources with the board. Teachers can bring up previously saved slides via QR codes and hand out virtual copies of class notes without a printer.
Students can see the board update on their screens in real-time, and even contribute to the whiteboard by drawing on their own screens. Besides SMARTboards, VR technology lets students explore ideas, play games, view films, visualize complex data, interact with 3D objects that are too fragile or microscopic, and visit other countries virtually Merchant et al. Tiltbrush allows students to navigate around their painting, import previously drawn art into their work, and easily share their work. Students can rotate these organs and learn about the human body in ways that no traditional textbook can provide.
Organs in Share care have labeled descriptions on them, thereby supplementing visuals with factual information. Lamb et al. VR has been used as an effective way to simulate dangerous scenarios such as earthquake or evacuation training Feng et al.
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Instead of flyers or posters on what to do during these dangerous situations, immersive VR can help humans envision the situation, which includes moving, crouching, turning, and simulate quick reactions to fake stimuli. Immersive VR can provide better memory recall ability compared to non-immersive VR conditions Krokos, et al. Their research showed that participants felt more focused on the task due to better immersion experience. Lastly, classrooms can be augmented with computer-generated stimuli that appear in reality, namely augmented reality.
AR technology can be cost-effective; students can download apps and utilize AR through their smartphone cameras. AR merges reality with fake stimuli to enhance learning; data appear over reality so students can observe artificial images in a real-world setting.
There are currently AR apps for almost any subject, such as geometry, translation, math, and art. For instance, users of the free Google Translate app can translate text into other languages in real-time by capturing the text on their smartphone. Together, digitally augmented classrooms strengthen learning capacity, happiness, and competitiveness of universities.
Admittedly, incorporating these technologies is costly and time intensive but the investment brings long-term benefits. Traditional classrooms can be replaced by online courses, but augmented classrooms cannot be. While augmenting digital classrooms is one way Smart Campus can assist education, smart campuses enhance learning in other ways as well. Professors are responsible for delivering and facilitating content delivery and application while students are expected to engage in the material. Another option is using Bluetooth bacon installed in each classroom coupled with a mobile App since almost all students are equipped with smart phone.
If a student consistently attends one class but consistently misses another, it may indicate the amount of effort and dedication the student is putting in respective classes.
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Teachers can use this data to track their own teaching performance, with the assumption that students who regularly attend class are expected to do better. Moreover, teachers can analyze the types of words and thoughts the students are often engaged in when posting on class discussion boards. Programs such as the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count LIWC counts the number of psychologically meaningful words and groups the frequency of these words into categories. Another program that analyses written text is automated integrative complexity Conway et al.
This computer program codes the structure of thoughts from 1 to 7 with paragraphs as the typical unit of analysis , with more complex thoughts represented by higher scores. Simple thoughts represent a more unidimensional opinion of an idea, whereas more complex thoughts represent multi-faceted thoughts about an idea.
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Complexity of ideas has shown to predict quality of decision-making. Internet of Things IoT can also help students with disabilities succeed in the classroom. The note-taker is usually a fellow classmate whose notes are shared with the disabled students. However, the notes are not guaranteed to be good, people have different styles of taking notes, and notes might be too brief or too detailed for the disabled students.
In addition to note-takers, disabled students could benefit from adopt automated audio transcribing technology that records and transcribes the instructor. Classrooms could instill their own recording devices to ensure that people sitting in the back of the lecture hall can still record the lecture clearly.
These transcribed files can be seamlessly edited e. These transcribed files can supplement class notes for students and serve as a tool for teachers to keep a record of what they taught in class. Inexperienced teachers may want to recall what they said to improve how they deliver their lectures in the future.
To further improve pedagogy, different instructors teaching the same courses could pool their knowledge to create crowd-sourced customized curriculums with replicable instructions Johnson, . Teachers could share their syllabus, lecture notes, or even past exams with a network of teachers from different institutions.
If done correctly, teachers could borrow the best ideas from different teachers and adapt successful lesson plans into their own courses. Extending this further, teachers could share practices of augmented classrooms and exemplary student work with the names removed. One example of customized curriculum is the creation of a textbook via compilation chapters. For instance, many scholars recognize that textbooks are expensive and possibly outdated but writing a textbook themselves is far too strenuous.
One non-profit publisher called NOBA tackled this problem by getting top scholars in various areas of psychology to write one chapter of the book with respect to their expertise.