Flavonoids of the Sunflower Family (Asteraceae)

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The stem surface has a trichome, stem length Leaves green, the leaf shape ovate, the base of the leaf cuneate, the apical leaf aristulate. Simple leaves, the shape of the leaf bone pinni-palmate, edge serrulate.

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The leaf attachment petiolate, the leaf arrangement opposite. Adaxial and abaxial leaves have trichomes, leaves length 2 - 5. Flowers have seven bractea, two longer bractea Figure 9b. Inflorescence verticillacter, capitate, the edge flower includes female flowers that have a yellow ray or ligule Figure 9c. The middle flower tubular, has five yellow corolla, including bisexual flowers.

Morphology of Flowering Plants - Family Asteraceae or Compositeae

The number of stamen four, bisexual flowers, the arrangement of stamen included; stamen coalescent, dark brown. The number of pistils and style one, the forked stigma; style bifid. Ovary inferior Figure 9d and Figure 9e. Distribution and habitat: these plants come from tropical America, and have spread in tropical regions and throughout the Southeast Asia region, Indonesia Malang.

This species grow almost in all habitats that have enough soil moisture [2]. Local name: Jotang, Gletang. Figure 9. Stem green, procumbent; surface has a trichome, a stem length of about 9 - 11 cm, a diameter of 0. The leaves are green, obovate, base aequilateral, the apical leaf aristulate. Single leaf, the shape of the leaf bone, pinni-palmate, edge serrate. The leaf attachment petiolate, arrangement opposite.

The adaxial and abaxial sections of the leaves have trichomes, lengths of 2. Flower edges include females with white ray or ligule. Tubular middle flowers with five corollas yellow, bisexual flowers Figures 10b, 10c, and 10d. Flowers grow terminal, inflorescence capitulum-capitate, there are five stamen in bisexual flowers and arranged exserted, fusion stamen coalescent, yellow stamen.

In the gynecology section there one pistil and one style, two-stigmatized stigma; style macrostylous. Ovary inferior Figure 10e. Distribution and habitat: these plants are native to tropical America and spread in tropical Africa, Asia, Indonesia Malang and Australia. This plant can grow in almost all environments, but will adapt well to environments with coarse-textured soils in the tropics [33; 10, 11, 12].

Local name: Gletang. Figure Tridax procumbens L. India [Wight] 24 Flora of Java. Moench Gynura ecalyculata DC. Herbaceous, taproot. Stem green color, virgate, length about 21 - Leaves green, the shape lyrate, base auriculate, apical acute. Single leaf, the shape of the bone reticulate, the shape of the leaf edge lacerate.

Bibliographic Information

The attachment of leaves decurrent and arranged rosette. The adaxial and abaxial sections of the leaves are smooth, leaves length 3. Flower purple color, inflorescence corymb, the flower tubular with five corollas and includes bisexual Figures 11a, 11b and 11c. Flowers have a number of five stamen arranged according to included, coalescent, stamen fusion white. Number of pistils and style one, stigma branched; style macrostylous. Ovary inferior Figure 11d.

Distribution and habitat: Emilia sonchifolia native to South and Central America.

Flavonoids of the Sunflower Family (Asteraceae)

This type spread in tropical and subtropical regions, especially in parts of West Africa, Asia, Indonesia Malang and Oceania [41]. Local name: Tempuh wiyang, Gathering wiyang Java. Emilia sonchifolia L. Linnaea 4: Flora of Java. Washington 1 : Basionim: Conyza cinerea L. Habitus herbaceous with taproot. Stem divergent, length 6 - 8 cm, diamater 0. The leaves are dark green, the leaf oblanceolate, the base of the leaf attenuate, the apical rounded. Single leaf simple , the shape of leaf bone shaped pinni-palmate, leaf edge pinna-trilobate, leaf attachment petiolate, leaf arrangement dextrorse.

Stem length 1. The abaxial and adaxial parts are smooth Figure 12a. Flower purple olor, inflorescence compound corymb, a tubular flower with five corollas which are attached to one another Figures 12b and 12c.

The color of the white stamen, the number of stamen five, arranged in included, stamen coalescent; pistil 1, stigma fork. Style 1 macrostylous. Ovary's inferior Figure 12d. Distribution and habitat: Vernonia cinerea is native to Africa eg. This plant usually grows in areas that get enough sunlight, dry land, roadside, and cultivated land [24]. Vernonia cinerea Less a Plant individual; b the size of one lumpy flower; c tube flowers d pistil and stamen from tube flowers Senecio vulgaris L. Vulgaris Senecio vulgari-humilis Batt. Basionim: Senecio vulgaris L.

Senecio vulgaris L. The color of the stem green. The surface of the stem covered with white trichomes, not branched, stem length 39 - 41 cm. Leaves green, the leaf shape lyrate, the base attenuate, if the leaves are aristulate. The leaves include a single leaf, the shape of the leaf bone is reticulate, the leaf edge lacerate.

The attachment of leaves petiolate and arranged cauline. The leaves 3 - 10 cm long, 0.

Flavonoids of the sunflower family (Asteraceae) in SearchWorks catalog

Middle flower includes bisexual flowers in the shape of a tube with five yellow corollas. Flowers have bracteole, flowers grow axillary. Inflorescence panicle, capitate Figures 13b and 13c.

Table of contents

The number of stamen five, bisexual and arranged in included, stamen fused with the form of coalescent, yellow stamen. The number of pistil and style one with two branched stigma, macrostylous. Ovary inferior Figure 13d. These plants usually grow in areas of agriculture and on urban land [29]. Key to Determination The key to determination is based on the characteristics of each plant that has been found on the campus of Brawijaya University. The following are identified characters: 1a. Leaf deltoid. Flower ligula absent, inflorescence capitulum Ageratum conyzoides 1b. Flowers with ligule, inflorescence capitulum Thick stem, smooth stem surface Small stem, rough stem surface Calytocarpus vialis 3a.

Leaf thick dark green, the surface slippery Acmella paniculata 3b. Leaf light green, arrangement rosette Leaf attachment petiolate, the apical obtuse Youngia japonica 4b. Leaf attachment decurrent, virgate, the apical lyrate Flower yellow, leaf length 9 - 33 cm Sonchus arvesis 5b.

Flower purple, leaves are smooth Leaf in base attenuate, leaf pinni-palmate Leaf auriculate, reticulate, leaf decurrent Emilia sonchifolia 7a. The leaf arrangement dextrorse, the abaxial and adaxial part of the leaf smoot Vernonia cinerea 7b.